An aberrant cell development in the brain or surrounding tissues is called a brain tumor. Primary brain tumors are those that start inside the brain, whereas secondary or metastatic brain tumors are those that spread from other regions of the body to the brain.
The type of cells involved determines the further classification of primary brain tumors. Gliomas, meningiomas, pituitary adenomas, and medulloblastomas are a few frequent forms. The most common kind of brain tumors are called gliomas, and they include astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and ependymomas.
Although the precise causes of brain tumors is frequently unknown, a number of risk factors have been found. These comprise ionizing radiation exposure, a family history of brain cancers, specific genetic disorders, and particular environmental variables.World Brain Tumor Day is celebrated every year on 8th June, so that people can be made aware about this deadly disease.
- Symptoms of Brain tumor:
- Causes Of Brain Tumor:
- Possible treatment for Brain Tumor:
Symptoms of Brain tumor:
Actually, having a headache is a common problem which can happen due to many reasons, but if suddenly the form of headache seems to change or suddenly there is severe headache, feeling like vomiting and it becomes dark in front, and or the headache takes a different form day by day. If it increases then in such a situation we should definitely consult a doctor. These can also be symptoms of brain tumor.
Having problems in hearing, speaking and thinking:
Along with the above symptoms, sometimes it may also happen that hearing ability suddenly decreases. Tongue getting stuck while speaking. There may also be symptoms like sudden disruption in thinking ability.
Decreased vision: Sometimes it is seen that the eyesight decreases in the symptoms of brain tumor.
Symptoms like depression:
In patients above 50 years of age who have a tumor in the frontal lobe, such patients are always surrounded by depression and are troubled by the problem of insomnia.
The ability to remember something or think and understand becomes weak and this problem increases rapidly.
Change in personality:
Due to brain tumor, there is a sudden change in the behavior of the person. Changes begin to occur in daily activities.
Sometimes there are cases of brain tumor in which no symptoms are visible. In case of head injury or any other reason, a brain scan of the person is done and the presence of tumor is detected.
Causes Of Brain Tumor:
Many times, the precise causes of brain tumors are not known. On the other hand, some risk factors that may raise the chance of getting a brain tumor have been found by researchers. Among these risk factors are:
1.Age and Brain Tumor :
Research has shown that for people between the ages of 15 and 40, the probability is about 75%, while for people over 40, the probability is about 22%. This means that youth are becoming more vulnerable to it.
2.Ionizing radiation exposure:
Brain tumor development has been associated with high-dose radiation exposure, such as that received from radiation therapy used to treat other malignancies or radiation exposure from nuclear accidents.
3.Genetic and family history:
A higher chance of developing a brain tumor has been linked to a number of uncommon genetic disorders, including neurofibromatosis, tuberous sclerosis, Li-Fraumeni syndrome, and von Hippel-Lindau disease. Furthermore, there may be a small increase in risk if there is a family history of brain tumors.
4.Immune system problems:
A higher chance of acquiring specific brain malignancies, including primary central nervous system lymphoma, has been connected to a number of uncommon immune system disorders, including AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).
Extended exposure to some chemicals, including formaldehyde, vinyl chloride, and insecticides, has been proposed as a possible risk factor for brain tumors. However, there is scant and conflicting data connecting these substances to brain cancers.
It is noteworthy that while most people with risk factors do not acquire brain tumors, the bulk of brain tumors occur in persons who have no known risk factors. Although the precise interactions between genetic and environmental variables and brain tumor development remain unclear, they are most likely to be combined.
It’s also important to note that secondary brain tumors—tumors that have traveled from other places of the body to the brain—have several underlying causes. In some instances, the brain tumor does not originate in the brain; rather, it is the result of a primary malignancy that has spread to other parts of the body.Lung cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, and melanoma are the most prevalent cancers that can spread to the brain.
Possible treatment for Brain Tumor:
Brain tumors are usually diagnosed by a combination of study of the patient’s medical history, neurological examination, imaging tests (MRI or CT scans), and occasionally a biopsy to examine a sample of the tumor tissue. After a brain tumor is identified, more testing could be carried out to ascertain.
The kind, location, size, and grade of the tumor, in addition to the patient’s general health and preferences, all influence the course of treatment for a brain tumor. A mix of these therapies may be applied in specific circumstances. Removing or reducing the tumor, relieving symptoms, and enhancing the patient’s quality of life are the objectives of treatment.
The following are the main ways that brain tumors are treated:
If the tumor is accessible and its removal does not significantly jeopardize important brain processes, surgery is frequently the first course of treatment. As much of the tumor as feasible must be removed during surgery while the surrounding healthy brain tissue is preserved. Complete removal might not always be possible because of the location of the tumor or other issues.
To target and kill cancer cells, radiation therapy employs high-energy X-rays or other types of radiation. When surgery is not an option, it is frequently utilized as the main course of treatment to eradicate any residual tumor cells. Brachytherapy, or internal delivery of radiation therapy using implanted radioactive sources, is an alternative to external beam radiation therapy.
This treatment uses medications to either destroy or stop the growth of cancer cells. Chemotherapy can be injected intravenously, orally, or directly into the cerebrospinal fluid. In certain cases, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are combined, especially when treating brain cancers that respond better to chemotherapy.
Drugs that selectively target certain chemicals or genetic alterations involved in the development and spread of cancer cells are referred to as targeted therapy. These medications have the ability to obstruct particular signaling pathways or prevent new blood vessels from forming to nourish the tumor. For some kinds of brain tumors, targeted therapy may be advised in addition to conventional treatments.
The goal of immunotherapy is to activate the immune system so that it can identify and combat cancerous cells. It can be applied to some brain tumors, especially those that have certain molecular characteristics that allow immunotherapy medications to work on them. The topic of immunotherapy is fast developing, and research on its use to the treatment of brain tumors is still ongoing.
This is an essential adjunct to basic treatments in order to help manage symptoms, enhance quality of life, and attend to the patient’s physical, emotional, and psychological needs. Palliative care, which aims to improve comfort and relieve symptoms, is one type of supportive care that may include pain treatment, counseling, rehabilitation therapies, and other services.
A multidisciplinary team comprising medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, neurosurgeons, and other specialists decides on the specific course of treatment for a brain tumor. Taking into account the unique features of both the patient and the tumor, the team creates a customized course of treatment. To evaluate the response to treatment and handle any possible side effects or complications, routine monitoring and follow-up care are also crucial.